• general knowledge of maritime transport business liner business
    (1) liner business 1. Features and functions: a liner usually refers to a ship that has a fixed route, calls at a number of fixed ports along the way, and sails according to a predetermined schedule. For the port of call, regardless of the quantity of goods, generally can accept shipping. It has the characteristics of fixed route, connecting port, shipping schedule and freight rate, similar ship types on the same route and keeping certain flight density, packaged and unloaded freight rate, rights and obligations of both parties and exemption from liability based on the terms of the bill of lading issued. 2. Division of responsibilities between carrier and shipper: liner carrier refers to the party who undertakes to provide and transport the ship in the liner transportation contract. The shipper is the party who entrusts the carrier to transport the goods in the liner transportation contract. In other words, after the shipper delivers the goods under the hook, the carrier is responsible for loading the goods. But the risk is generally divided by the ship's side, that is, the shipper is responsible for the risk before the goods cross the ship's side at the loading port, and the carrier is responsible for the risk after the goods cross the ship's side. The most basic obligation of the carrier is to deliver the goods to the designated place intact within a reasonable period of time and deliver them to the consignee. The basic obligation of the shipper is to prepare the consigned goods according to the agreed time, quality and quantity, ensure the continuous operation of the ship, and pay the relevant fees in time. 3. Liner trade union: also known as shipping trade union, it is an international shipping monopoly organization composed of two or more shipping companies operating liner transportation on the same route, in order to safeguard common interests, avoid mutual competition, and establish a unified freight rate and a unified method system. The members can be divided into two types: one is the full members who participate in the guild to control all routes, the other is the full members who only participate in some routes. The conditions for participation are as follows: one is open Association, which can be applied by all shipping companies; the other is closed Association. Only shipping companies with certain qualification and navigation performance can participate after discussion. In order to maintain its monopoly, the guild excluded the non guild shipping companies, such as using combat ships, reducing freight rates to solicit goods, forcing non member shipping companies to withdraw from the route. For the consignor, the system of deferred rebate and double rate is adopted. All cargo owners who have signed a contract with the guild can enjoy preferential rates; for the next phase, they can still use the guild ship to carry goods, and they can also get deferred rebate. In a word, the trade union took these measures only to control the cargo and obtain high profits.
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  • knowledge of basic marine terms liner transportation
    a service provided by a shipping company, in which a cargo ship operates regularly at a predetermined and announced port of loading and unloading. The freight is calculated according to the company's tariff.
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  • knowledge of basic marine terms - Commission
    the commission paid by the owner to the charterer as a percentage of freight or rent, usually 2.5%. Although this Commission is used by Charterers as a means to reduce freight or rent, it may be adjusted by shipowners.
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  • knowledge of basic marine terms - Additional demurrage
    additional demurrage The amount paid to the owner by the voyage charterer, the shipper or the consignee, as the case may be, for failure to complete loading and unloading within the agreed demurrage period. The daily rate of additional demurrage is stipulated in the charter party.
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  • related knowledge of basic terms of maritime transportation - tariff level
    a category on a shipping company's or liner Association's tariff sheet, each of which includes a single fee category and a group of goods applicable to the rate. These grades are changed into numbers for easy identification, which may be preceded by W or m to indicate whether the freight is calculated by weight or by size.
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  • knowledge of basic terms of marine transportation - empty driving
    the reasons why a ship has to sail empty between the two ports are as follows: (1) there is no cargo to be loaded at the unloading port; (2) in some cases, there may be a series of voyages between the two ports, but only cargo in one direction is suitable for loading; (3) in other cases, there may be a series of voyages. It may be more cost-effective to go to a port empty for high freight than to go to that port loaded with low freight.
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  • knowledge of basic marine terms - sublease contract
    a contract between the charterer and his family. The terms and conditions of the contract are in conformity with those of the charterer and the owner Same as (often called headcontract). The purpose of making the same clause is to ensure that the Charterers will probably Any money paid to the owner, such as the express payment, can be recovered from the owner.
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  • National Standard Logistics terms of the people's Republic of China
    Logistics is a traditional industry, but with the rapid development of economy and the continuous emergence of high-tech, it has been given a new, deeper connotation and new concept, which makes the logistics industry enter a new stage of vigorous development. This standard is based on extensive investigation and research, absorbing and referring to the relevant information at home and abroad, collecting and determining 145 terms and their definitions which are basically mature in the field of logistics, aiming at standardizing the basic concepts in the development of China's current logistics industry, so as to meet the needs of the rapid development of logistics industry and international integration. This standard is proposed and centralized by the State Administration of internal trade. This standard is drafted by: logistics technical and Economic Committee of China Material Circulation Association, China Material Circulation Technology Development Association, Beijing University of technology and industry, Beijing Institute of materials, North Jiaotong University, Huazhong University of science and technology, Institute of material circulation technology of domestic trade bureau, Haifu development (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., China material storage and Transportation Corporation, and China foreign trade and transportation (Group) Corporation )Head office, China container holding company. Main drafters of this standard: he Mingke, Wu Yue, Mu Weizhong, he Tiefu, Wang Yaoqiu, Wu Runtao, Zhang Ming, Liu Zhixue, Li Jidong, Liu Jianxin 1、 Scope This standard defines the basic concept terms, logistics operation terms, logistics technical equipment and facilities terms, logistics management terms and their definitions in logistics activities. This standard is applicable to information processing and exchange in logistics and related fields, as well as relevant regulations and documents. 2、 Reference standard The provisions contained in the following standards constitute the provisions of this standard by reference in this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated are valid. All standards will be revised. All parties using this standard shall explore the possibility of using the latest version of the following standards. 3、 Basic concepts and terms Article: the material materials related to the flow of entities in economic activities. Logistics: the physical flow process of goods from the place of supply to the place of receiving. According to the actual needs, the basic functions of transportation, storage, loading and unloading, handling, packaging, circulation processing, distribution and information processing are organically combined. Logistics activity: the implementation and management process of logistics functions. 4 logistics operation: the specific operation activities to realize the logistics function. Logistics module: the dimension standard of logistics facilities and equipment. Logistics technology: the theory and method of natural science and social science, as well as facilities, equipment, devices and processes used in logistics activities. Logistics cost: the monetary expression of materialized labor and living labor consumed in logistics activities. Logistics management: the planning, organization, coordination and control of logistics activities in order to achieve the satisfactory service level of users with the lowest logistics cost. Logistics center: a place or organization engaged in logistics activities. It should basically meet the following requirements: (1) Mainly for social services; (2) The function of logistics is perfect; (3) Perfect information network; (4) The radiation range is large; (5) Small variety and large quantity; (6) Strong storage and throughput capacity: (7) Unified operation and management of logistics business. Logistics network: a collection of interrelated organizations and facilities in the process of logistics. Logistics information: the general term of knowledge, materials, images, data and documents reflecting the contents of various logistics activities. Logistics enterprise: an economic organization engaged in logistics activities. Logistics Documents: the general name of all documents, bills and vouchers used in the logistics process. Logistics Alliance: a long-term alliance and cooperation between two or more economic organizations to achieve specific logistics goals. Supply logistics: the physical flow of goods between suppliers and demanders when providing raw materials, spare parts or other goods for manufacturing enterprises. Production logistics: the internal entity flow of production process, raw materials, work in process, semi-finished products, finished products, etc. Distribution logistics: the physical flow of goods between the supplier and the demander when manufacturing enterprises and circulation enterprises sell goods. Return logistics: the flow of substandard goods formed by the repair and return of substandard goods and the return of reusable packaging containers from the demander to the supplier. Waste material logistics: the physical flow of goods formed by the collection, classification, processing, packaging, handling, storage, etc. of goods that have lost their original use value in economic activities and are distributed to special treatment places according to the actual needs. Green logistics environment ecology: in the process of logistics, we can restrain the harm of logistics to the environment, at the same time, we can purify the logistics environment and make the best use of logistics resources. Internal logistics: the flow of goods within an enterprise. External logistics: the general term of logistics activities outside enterprises. Military Logistics: logistics activities used to meet the needs of the army in peacetime and wartime. International Logistics: logistics between different countries (regions). Third part logistics (TPL): a business model in which logistics services are provided by logistics enterprises other than suppliers and demanders. Customized logistics: a logistics service mode specially designed for users according to their specific requirements. Virtual Logistics: it is a kind of logistics mode that uses computer network technology for logistics operation and management, and realizes the sharing and optimal allocation of logistics resources among enterprises. Value added logistics service: Based on the completion of the basic functions of logistics, it provides various extended business activities according to the needs of customers. Supply chain: in the process of production and circulation, it involves the upstream and downstream enterprises that provide products or services to the end users. 3O bar code: a code composed of a set of bars, blanks and characters arranged regularly to represent certain information. Synonym: barcode symbol Electronic data interchange (EDI): through electronic means, using standardized formats, using computer networks for structured data transmission and exchange. Tangible loss: visible or measurable physical loss or consumption. Intangible loss: the depreciation of goods caused by the progress of science and technology. 4、 Logistics operation terms Transportation: the logistics activity of transporting goods from one place to another with equipment and tools. It includes a series of operations such as goods collection, distribution, transportation, transfer, loading, unloading and dispersion. Combined transportation: a transportation mode in which two or more transportation enterprises or more than two transportation modes are entrusted to deliver a batch of goods to the destination at one time. Through transport: a mode of transportation in which goods are transported from the place of shipment to the place of receiving without changing or stopping at the place of storage. Transfer transport: a transport mode in which the goods are transported from the place of production to the place of final use, landing and reloading more than once in the middle. Drop and pull transport: a transport mode in which a trailer is towed to a destination by a tractor, and then a new trailer is used to transport the trailer to another destination. Containerized transport: the transport of bare goods, bulk goods and small bulk goods into a certain specification of containerized unit by using containerization equipment or bundling method. Container transport: a kind of freight transport mode that takes container as a unit to transport goods. 8 door to door: the carrier receives the goods in full container at the shipper's factory or warehouse, and is responsible for delivering the goods in full container at the consignee's factory or warehouse. Full container load (FCL): a container is filled with goods of one shipper and one consignee. LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL) LCL (LCL. 11 storage: protect, manage and store goods. Safekeeping: the activity of keeping and controlling the quantity and quality of goods. Article reserves: articles stored for use. There are current reserve, long-term reserve and strategic reserve. Inventory: items in storage. In a broad sense, inventory also includes items in manufacturing and transportation status. Cycle stock: under the normal business environment, the inventory established by an enterprise to meet its daily needs. Safety stock: buffer stock prepared to prevent uncertain factors (such as a large number of sudden orders, sudden delay of delivery date, etc.). Inventory cycle time: the average time from stock in to stock out within a certain range. Lead time (or lead time): the time interval between the issue of an order and the receipt of goods. Order processing cycle: the time interval between the receipt of the order and the delivery of the ordered goods. Goodstack: in order to facilitate storage, loading, unloading and transportation, a batch of goods are stacked together according to certain requirements. Stacking: the operation of stacking goods neatly and regularly. Handling / carrying: the logistics operation of moving goods horizontally in the same place. Loading and unloading: refers to the loading or unloading of goods into transport equipment by manpower or machinery at a designated place. Unit loading and unloading: a loading and unloading method in which small or bulk articles are integrated into a certain weight or volume by means of pallets, containers or packages, so as to use machinery for operation. Package / Packaging: the general name of containers, materials and auxiliary materials used according to certain technical methods to protect products, facilitate storage and transportation, and promote sales in the process of circulation. It also refers to the operation activities of applying certain technical methods in the process of using containers, materials and auxiliary materials to achieve the above purpose. Sales package: also known as inner package, it is a package that directly contacts the goods and enters the retail outlets with the goods to meet the consumers or users directly. Packaged brand: the buyer's practice of requiring the seller to use the brand name or trademark designated by the buyer on the export commodities / packages. Neutral packaging: the packaging that does not indicate the country of production on the export commodities and their inner and outer packaging. Transportation package: the main purpose is to meet the requirements of transportation and storage. It can ensure the safety of products, facilitate the storage, transportation, loading and unloading, accelerate the handover, inspection and other functions. Palletizing: Taking the pallet as the carrier, the packages or products are stacked on the pallet and fixed by bundling, wrapping or gluing to form a handling unit for handling with mechanical equipment. Containerization: the use of containerization tools or strapping methods to form standard specifications of the unit cargo, in order to speed up the loading and unloading, handling, storage, transportation and other logistics activities. Bulk bulk: the bulk goods are transported, loaded and unloaded by special machines and tools. Within a certain logistics scope, they are not packaged, and fixed for a long time. They are loaded, unloaded, transported and stored by suction, grab and other machines and tools. Direct transshipment crossdocking: in the process of logistics, goods are transferred directly from one means of transportation to another means of transportation without passing through the intermediate warehouse or station. Distribution: in the economic and reasonable area, according to the user's requirements, the goods are selected, processed, packaged, divided, assembled and other operations, and delivered to the designated place on time. Joint distribution: a distribution activity jointly organized and implemented by multiple enterprises. Distribution center: a logistics place or organization engaged in distribution business. It should basically meet the following requirements: (1) mainly for specific users; (2) The distribution function is perfect; (3) Perfect information network; (4) The radiation range is small; (5) Multi variety and small batch; (6) Distribution is the main, storage is the secondary. Sorting: the operation of classifying and stacking the articles according to the variety and the sequence of entering and leaving the warehouse. Picking: according to the requirements of the order or delivery order, select the items from the storage place and place them in the designated place. Goods collection: the collection of scattered or small quantities of goods for transportation and distribution. Assemb1y: before delivery, organize and arrange the loading of goods according to the flow and direction of goods and the carrying capacity and volume of transportation tools. Distribution processing: in the process of goods from the place of production to the place of use, simple operations such as packaging, segmentation, measurement, sorting, marking, labeling and assembly are applied according to the needs. Cold chain: a logistics network equipped with special equipment to maintain the quality of fresh food and frozen food and keep them in a low temperature state from production to consumption. Inspection: the general term for inspection and acceptance of the quality, quantity and packaging of the subject matter according to the contract or standard. 5、 Terminology of logistics technical equipment and facilities Warehouse: the general name of the buildings and places where goods are kept and stored. Storehouse: a closed building with a roof and enclosure for storing various goods. Automatic warehouse: a warehouse that is managed and controlled by an electronic computer. It does not need manual handling, but realizes receiving and sending operations. Stereoscopic warehouse: a warehouse that uses high-rise shelves with containers or pallets to store goods and uses tunnel Stacking Cranes and other machines to operate. Virtual warehouse: a logistics facility for goods storage, storage and remote control based on computer and network communication technology. It can realize the effective scheduling and unified management of different states, space, time and cargo owners. Bonded warehouse: a place approved by the customs and under the supervision of the customs, which is specially used for storing goods entering or transiting the country without going through customs formalities. Export supervision warehouse: with the approval of the customs, under the supervision of the customs, it is a special warehouse for storing the goods that have obtained the export goods license or approval according to the regulations, purchased and settled the foreign exchange and completed all the export customs procedures with the customs. Cargo under customs supervision: import, export, transit, transshipment and through transport cargo subject to customs inspection within the scope of Customs approval, as well as bonded cargo and other inbound and outbound cargo that have not yet completed customs procedures. Chillspace: an area of a warehouse where the temperature is maintained between 0 ℃ and 10 ℃. Freezespace: an area of a warehouse where the temperature is kept below 0 ℃. Humiditycontrolled space: a warehouse area equipped with humidity modulation equipment to adjust the internal humidity. Temperature controlled space: the warehouse area whose temperature can be adjusted within a certain range according to needs. Receiving space: the area where the incoming goods are checked and prepared before entering the warehouse. 14 shipping space: the area where the goods are concentrated for shipment. Good shed: a simple building for storing certain articles, usually without or only with partial enclosure. Goodyard: an open space for storing certain items. Goodshelf: a three-dimensional storage facility consisting of shelves, partitions or shelves. Pallet: a horizontal platform device used for loading, stacking, handling and transportation of goods and products as a unit load. Forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift forklift. 20 conveyor: a machine for continuous delivery of goods. Automatic guided vehicle (AGV): a trackless transport vehicle that can automatically travel to a designated location. Boxcar: in addition to all the mechanical properties of an ordinary car, it must also have a fully enclosed box body and a door for loading and unloading. Container is a kind of transportation equipment. The following requirements shall be met: A. It has enough strength and can be used repeatedly for a long time; b. It is suitable for one or more modes of transportation. During transit, there is no need to change the cargo in the box c. It has the device of fast loading and unloading and handling, which is especially convenient to transfer from one mode of transportation to another; d. Easy to load and unload goods; e. It has a volume of 1 cubic meter or more. The term container does not include vehicles and general packaging. Twenty four TEU: also known as TEU. Twenty foot container unit (TEU) is used as the conversion unit. Special cargo container: a general term for containers used to transport special goods. Full container ship: a ship with fixed or movable grill structure in the cabin and fastening devices for fixed containers on the hatch cover and deck, which is convenient for container operation and positioning. Railway Container Yard: a place for container transportation, delivery, loading and unloading, stacking, loading and unloading, door-to-door operations, and organizing container trains. 28 highway container transfer station: it is a place for container transfer transportation, door-to-door transportation and container cargo unpacking, packing, warehousing and receiving, delivery, loading and unloading, and stacking. Container freight station (CFS): the place where LCL cargo is unpacked, packed and handed over. Container terminal: a terminal specially used for berthing container ships and loading and unloading containers. International through railway transport: a coherent mode of transport in which a unified international railway transport bill is used, and the transnational railway carrier handles the whole journey of two or more countries' railways and undertakes the transportation responsibility. International multimodal transport: according to the multimodal transport contract, the multimodal transport operator transports the goods from the place of taking over in one country to the designated place of delivery in another country by at least two different modes of transport. Land bridge transport: a continuous transport mode that connects the ocean transport at both ends of the continent by using the transcontinental railway or highway as the intermediate bridge. Liner transport: a water transport mode that sails on a fixed route, in a given port order, according to a pre announced shipping schedule. Shipping by chartering: according to the agreement, the charterer charters the ship to the shipowner for the transportation of goods and pays the shipowner freight or rent at the agreed freight rate. Shipping agency: according to the entrustment of the carrier, to handle the business activities related to the entry and exit of ships. International freight forwarding agent: an economic organization that accepts the entrustment of the consignor and the consignor of import and export goods, handles international freight transportation and related business for the consignor in the name of the consignor or itself, and receives labor remuneration. Tally tally: in cargo loading and unloading, count (count), measure, check incomplete, guide loading and stowage, check marks, check packaging, divide tickets, divide marks and on-site visa according to cargo transport bills. International transportation insurance: in international trade, the insurance that takes the goods in international transportation as the subject matter of insurance to obtain compensation for property losses caused by natural disasters and accidents. Customs declaration: the whole process in which the consignor and the consignee of import and export goods or their agents go through the entry and exit formalities with the customs. Customs broker: an enterprise specialized in handling import and export customs declaration business. Commodity inspection: Commodity Inspection for short. To determine the quality, specification, weight, quantity, packaging, safety performance, hygiene indicators, shipping technology and conditions of import and export commodities, and to carry out inspection and appraisal, so as to determine whether they are consistent with the trade contract and relevant standards, and whether they conform to the relevant laws and administrative regulations of the import and export countries. 6、 Logistics management terminology Logistics strategy: in order to seek the sustainable development of logistics, it is a long-term and overall planning and strategy on the development goal of logistics and the ways and means to achieve the goal. Logistics strategy management: the process of implementation and control of logistics organization according to the established logistics strategy. Warehouse management: the activity of planning and controlling the inventory, warehouse facilities and their layout. Warehouse layout: in a certain area or reservoir area, make scientific planning and overall design for the quantity, scale, geographical location, warehouse facilities, roads and other elements of the warehouse. Inventory control: a technical and economic measure for effective management to minimize the quantity of goods in stock on the premise of ensuring supply. Economic order quantity (EOQ): the optimal order quantity with the lowest total inventory cost can be achieved by balancing purchase cost and storage cost accounting. Fixed quantity system (FQs): an inventory management mode in which orders are replenished according to the specified quantity (generally based on the economic order quantity) when the inventory quantity drops to the predetermined minimum inventory quantity (order point). Fixed interval system (FIS): a kind of inventory management method that replenishes the order according to the predetermined order interval. 9abc classification management ABC classification: the inventory items are divided into three levels: particularly important Inventory (Class A), generally important Inventory (class B) and unimportant Inventory (Class C) according to the variety and the amount of funds occupied, and then managed and controlled according to different levels. Electronic order system (e0s): a system in which different organizations exchange order operations and order information by means of online connection through communication networks and terminal equipment. Just in time (JIT): under the premise of accurately measuring the operation efficiency of each production process, it is a management mode with the goal of accurately planning according to the order and eliminating all invalid operations and consumption. Just in time logistics: a modern logistics mode based on JIT management concept. Zero inventory technology: in the field of production and circulation, it organizes material supply according to JIT to minimize the inventory of the whole process. Logistics cost control: the planning, coordination and control of logistics related expenses. Material requirements planning (MRP): a material planning management mode in industrial manufacturing enterprises. According to the subordination and quantity relationship of the items at all levels of the product structure, each item is taken as the planning object, and the completion date is taken as the time benchmark to reverse the plan. The time sequence of each item is distinguished according to the lead time. Manufacturing resource planning (MRP Ⅱ): from the overall optimal point of view, the use of scientific methods, a variety of manufacturing resources and enterprise production and operation of all aspects of the implementation of reasonable and effective planning, organization, control and coordination, not only to achieve continuous balanced production, but also to minimize the inventory of various items, and improve the enterprise economy Benefit management method. Distribution requirements planning (DRP): a kind of planning method that can meet the market demand effectively and save the cost of logistics resource allocation. It is the application of MRP principle and method in goods distribution. Distribution resource planning (DRP Ⅱ): a management mode of goods distribution planning system in enterprises. It is based on DRP to improve the logistics capacity of each link and achieve the purpose of optimizing the operation of the system. Logistics resource planning (LRP): a method of optimizing the allocation of material resources, which takes logistics as the basic means, breaks the boundary between production and circulation, integrates manufacturing resource planning, capacity resource planning, distribution demand planning and function planning. Enterprise resource planning (ERP): on the basis of MRP Ⅱ, through feedforward logistics and feedback information flow and capital flow, it integrates the customer's demand with the enterprise's internal production and operation activities as well as the supplier's resources, reflecting a brand-new management method of operation and management completely according to the user's demand. Supply chain management (SCM): the use of computer network technology to comprehensively plan the business flow, logistics, information flow, capital flow in the supply chain, and carry out planning, organization, coordination and control. Quick response (QR): faced with the buyer's market of many varieties and small batches, logistics enterprises do not reserve "products", but prepare various "elements". When users put forward requirements, they can extract "elements" as quickly as possible, assemble "elements" in time, and provide required services or products. Effective customer response (ECR): Based on the principle of meeting customer requirements and minimizing the cost of logistics process, ECR is a supply chain management strategy that can make timely and accurate response and optimize the supply or service process. Continuous replenishment program (CRP): a method to determine the quantity of goods sold by using timely and accurate sales point information, and determine the delivery replenishment quantity and delivery time according to the retailer's or wholesaler's inventory information and predetermined inventory replenishment procedures. Computer aided ordering (Ca0): a computer-aided ordering management system based on inventory and customer demand information. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI): suppliers and other upstream enterprises manage and control the inventory of downstream customers based on the production, operation and inventory information of their downstream customers. Outsourcing
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  • how to save port charges for shipping enterprises
    during the period of ships entering and leaving the port as well as berthing in In Port, due to the use of port waters, channels, berths, wharves, pontoons, anchorage, etc., loading, unloading and applying for various services provided by relevant port authorities, such as pilotage, tugboat, etc., various fees to be paid according to regulations are collectively referred to as "port charges". Port charge is an important part of transportation cost of transportation enterprises. In order to save port charge, we must have a general understanding of the content of port charge. The various expenses incurred by the ship at the port can be roughly divided into three categories. 1、 The cost of the ship. This kind of charge is levied on the ship, usually based on the gross tonnage or net tonnage of the ship. Such costs include the following: (1) Ship tonnage tax. This is a kind of tariff levied by the customs of sovereign countries when international ships enter the port. Generally, the tax rate is divided into several levels according to the net tonnage of the ship, and the tax period is one month, three months or one year. In a levy period, the same ship, no matter how many times it enters the port, will only receive one ton tax. Any trade and navigation agreement signed with the country where the port is located, which has the provisions of "preferential nation clause", can enjoy the most favored nation treatment and be levied according to the preferential tax rate. (2) Port charges. This is the fee that should be paid to the port authorities according to the regulations due to the use of the water area, channel and berthing place of the port during the period of the ship entering and leaving the port and berthing in In Port. In some ports, port fees are divided into various items, such as dredging fees, port administration fees, sluice fees, etc. The port charges are usually levied on the basis of the gross tonnage or net tonnage of the ship, which are collected at the same time. (3) Pilotage fee. When international ships enter or leave the port, they are usually forced to pilot, so the ship must pay the pilotage fee according to the provisions of port pilotage. There are also different ways to calculate and collect pilotage fees in different ports. Some of them are calculated and collected according to the tonnage of ships, while others are calculated and collected according to the dual factors of draught and tonnage of ships. (4) Tug fee, berthing fee, mooring and disembarking fee, etc. These fees are collected by the management department providing these services according to the prescribed rates, and are generally paid by the shipowner, except that the time charter is paid by the charterer. (5) Lamp fee, quarantine fee, customs clearance fee, etc. These fees are stipulated by the relevant administration and charged to the ship. In addition to the above-mentioned expenses, the expenses related to the ship may also include the expenses for dumping garbage, ship handover inspection, cabin fumigation, transportation, fire fighting, agency, etc. 2、 The cost of the goods. The amount of such expenses is directly related to the type and quantity of the goods. It includes port charges, handling charges, stowage charges, leveling charges, opening and closing charges, storage charges, barge charges, tallying charges, etc. The above expenses shall be borne by the ship or the cargo or the charterer in accordance with the provisions of the bill of lading or the charter party, except for the port charges of the goods. 3、 Use service fee. This kind of fee is calculated and collected according to the prescribed charging method by the port's equipment or labor service provider based on the application of the ship or cargo. It includes the cost of chartering all kinds of ships and all kinds of machinery and equipment, rigging, tools, oil supply, water supply, cabin sweeping, cabin inspection, dismantling bulkhead and other chores. Port toll is one of the main expenses of transportation cost. Some shipping companies spend more than 1 / 4 of the total cost on port charges, second only to fuel charges and ship repair charges. Therefore, to save port charges is a problem that ocean shipping enterprises must pay attention to in order to reduce transportation costs. Generally speaking, the ways to save port charges can be shown in the following aspects: 1. The ship must understand and master the rules of various charges and the adjustment of the rates. 2. the ship owner shall pay great attention to the reasonable arrangement of various operations of the ship in the port and make corresponding records. 3. Correctly grasp the time of ships entering and leaving the port. Efforts should be made to get in and out of the port during the day, because the cost of pilotage, tugboat, mooring and disembarking in various ports will be increased at night and holidays. 4. Before entering or leaving the port, the draft of the bow and stern of the ship shall be adjusted as far as possible to reduce the maximum draft of the ship. Because the pilotage fee of some ports, such as Japanese ports, is based on the gross tonnage of the ship and the maximum draught of the head and tail. 5. Declare the tonnage of the ship correctly. Tonnage tax, port charges and lighthouse charges are calculated based on the tonnage of the ship. For all deck ships with two or more decks, triangular tonnage marks can be drawn on both sides, and two different sizes of tonnage can be used to replace the open and closed tonnage of covered deck ships in the past. When the tonnage mark is submerged, the ship shall declare the large tonnage; when the tonnage mark is not submerged, the ship shall declare the small tonnage. 6. Stow the goods reasonably. Strive for the simultaneous operation of each cargo hold, and try to balance the loading and unloading time of each hold as much as possible, so as to shorten the In Port time of the ship. 7. Make preparations in time to reduce waiting time. 8. The ship side should carefully review and sign all kinds of charge documents to prevent unnecessary losses.
    2015-07-24 Read 364
  • the process of booking for export groceries
    to examine the shipping terms in the L / C: time of shipment, time of settlement of foreign exchange, port of shipment, port of destination, whether transshipment or partial shipment can be made, whether the shipping company is designated, name of the ship, ship's name and classification, etc. Some of them require various kinds of certificates, such as ship age certificate, etc. These terms and regulations should be accepted or revised according to China's policies, international practices, whether the requirements are reasonable and feasible. 1. Preparation for inspection: It is to prepare the export goods to be delivered on time, according to the quality and quantity, and do a good job in applying for inspection and obtaining the L / C according to the provisions of the export contract and L / C on the variety, specification, quantity and packaging of the goods. In China, all the commodities listed in the "list of categories" stipulated by the commodity inspection authorities and the commodities issued by the commodity inspection authorities according to the letter of credit and trade contract are required to fill in the "application for export inspection" to apply for commodity inspection before export declaration. Some export commodities need to identify the weight, some need to enter the action of plant quarantine or health and safety inspection, all need to be completed in advance and obtain a qualified inspection certificate. Make good preparations before shipment. The goods certificate is complete, we can handle the consignment work. 2. Signing of transportation contract: According to the requirements of the time limit of shipment in the trade contract and L / C, and combined with the production situation of the goods, negotiate with the shipping company or shipping company, and sign the transportation contract. 3. Shipping booking: After the conclusion of the contract, the preparation of the export consignment note can be submitted to the shipping company or its agent directly through the freight forwarding company. When the shipping company or its agent signs the loading note, the booking work will be completed. It should be reminded that the contents of the delivery paper or power of attorney should be accurate, consistent with the actual shipment of goods, consistent with the customs declaration documents, and consistent with the contents of the bill of lading to be issued as far as possible. 4. Cargo concentrated port area: After the ship's arrival loading plan is determined, the shipper shall complete the procedures of centralized transportation in accordance with the port purchase notice and within the specified time limit, and timely transport the export goods to the port area for centralized transportation, waiting for shipment, so as to achieve clear batch, clear number of pieces and clear marks. Special attention should be paid to keeping close contact with the port area, shipping companies and relevant transportation companies or railway units, so as to complete the purchase on time and prevent the work from being out of line and affecting the loading schedule. 5. Customs declaration: After the goods are concentrated in the port area, the prepared declaration form for export goods, together with the loading note, invoice, packing list, commodity inspection certificate, export sales contract, foreign exchange verification form and other relevant documents, shall be declared to the Customs for export, and the goods can only be loaded after being inspected and released by the customs officers. 6. Shipment: During the loading process, the freight forwarder entrusted by the shipper should have someone to supervise the loading on site, keep track of the loading progress and deal with temporary problems. If the tallyman finds that a certain batch is defective or poorly packed, he shall mark on the receipt and sign it by the chief mate to determine the responsibilities of both parties. As a shipper, we should try our best not to annotate on the receipt to get a clean bill of lading. 7. Review of B / L: The contents of the prefabricated bill of lading shall be carefully reviewed. Once the contents are confirmed with the shipping agency, the alteration shall be avoided as far as possible. 8. Payment of freight: Pay the freight and related expenses in time according to the contract. 9. Obtain B / L: After sailing, contact the ship owner's agent to issue the bill of lading. If necessary, issue the relevant letter of guarantee according to the letter of guarantee format provided by the ship owner or his agent, and finally obtain a full set of clean on board bill of lading.
    2015-07-24 Read 362
  • container knowledge
    1. The so-called container refers to a large loading container with certain strength, rigidity and specifications for turnover. Container transshipment can directly load the goods in the consignor's warehouse and unload them in the consignor's warehouse. It is unnecessary to take the goods out of the container for transshipment when changing vehicles or ships. According to the types of goods, there are general cargo containers, bulk cargo containers, liquid cargo containers, refrigerated containers, etc.; according to the manufacturing materials, there are wooden containers, steel containers, aluminum alloy containers, FRP containers, stainless steel containers, etc.; according to the structure, there are folding containers, fixed containers, etc., in fixed containers, there are also closed containers, open containers, etc According to the total weight, there are 30 ton container, 20 ton container, 10 ton container, 5 ton container, 2.5 ton container, etc. 2、 Containers overall external dimensions refers to the maximum length, width and height of a container including its permanent accessories. It is the main parameter to determine whether containers can be reloaded between ships, chassis cars, freight cars and railway vehicles. It is an important technical data that each transportation department must master. 3、 Containers internal dimensions refers to the maximum length, width and height of the container. The height is the distance from the bottom plate to the bottom of the top plate, the width is the distance between the two inner lining plates, and the length is the distance from the inner plate of the door to the inner lining plate of the end wall. It determines the inner volume of the container and the maximum size of the goods in the container. 4、 Containers unobstructed capacity is the loading capacity calculated according to the internal dimensions of containers. The contents of containers of the same specification are slightly different due to different structures and manufacturing materials. The inner volume of container is an important technical data that the material department or other packers must master. 5、 Twenty foot equivalent units (TEU) is also known as the conversion unit for calculating the number of containers. At present, most countries use 20 foot and 40 foot long containers for container transportation. In order to unify the calculation of the number of containers, 20 foot containers are taken as one unit of calculation and 40 foot containers as two units of calculation, so as to calculate the operation volume of containers in a unified way. 6、 Container leasing is a business in which the owner rents the empty container to the user. The owner of the container is the party leasing the container, and the user, usually the shipping company or cargo owner, is the party leasing the container, and both parties sign the leasing contract. The shipowner shall provide qualified containers for the charterer to use within the agreed scope. Packing, preparing stowage plan for each voyage; handling the preparation and signing of relevant freight documents; preparing and signing the documents related to the entry and exit and circulation of containers using means of transport; handling the inspection and maintenance of containers, means of transport and handling tools, as well as the cleaning and fumigation of empty containers; Receiving, receiving, storing and safekeeping of empty containers; arranging stacking of empty and heavy containers in the yard, and preparing site allocation plan; other related business work. The container loading and unloading area is generally composed of special wharf, front, storage yard, freight station, command tower, repair department, gate and office. Sometimes, the yard or freight station can be extended to the transfer station within 5-15 km of the urban area. 8、 Marshalling yard refers to the place where containers are temporarily stacked in front of the container terminal in order to speed up ship loading and unloading operations. Its function is: before the container ship arrives at the port, the export containers will be stacked in a planned and orderly manner according to the stowage requirements, and the import containers will be temporarily stacked in front of the wharf when unloading, so as to speed up the ship loading and unloading operation. 9、 Container yard is a place where heavy or empty containers are handed over, kept and stacked. In some countries, container yard is not divided into front yard or rear yard, which is called yard. The container rear yard is an integral part of the container handling area. It is the place for the whole container to be handed over (actually, it is handed over at the "gate" of the container unloading area). 10、 Van pool is a special place for the collection, storage, storage or handover of empty containers. It is specially set up for container handling area or transfer station when the storage yard is insufficient. This kind of yard does not handle heavy containers or goods handover. It can be operated independently or set up outside the container handling area. Some countries have to declare to the shipping association to operate such empty container yards. 11、 Transfer station or inland depot is a transfer station or distribution center for container transportation outside the harbor. Its function is the same as that of container handling area except that there is no special container ship. The measurement of transfer station or inland station includes urban transfer station of container loading and unloading port, inland station of inland city and inland port. 12、 Container freight station (CFS) is the place where both the ship and the cargo handle the handover of LCL cargo. The carrier can only entrust the operator of one container terminal in a port or inland city. On behalf of the carrier, it handles the following main business: tallying and handing over LCL goods; endorsing the appearance inspection of goods in case of any abnormality; stowing and packing LCL goods; unpacking and safekeeping imported unpacked goods; sealing and issuing station receipts on behalf of the carrier; handling various documents and preparation, etc. 13、 Shippers' liability refers to the shippers' liability in container transportation, which is different from the traditional maritime transportation. The liability of LCL shippers is the same as that of traditional sea transportation. The responsibilities of the shipper of full container cargo are different from those of traditional transportation: the shipper shall ensure the correctness and completeness of the freight information reported; the carrier shall have the right to check the cargo in the container, and the shipper shall bear the expenses arising from the check; The shipper shall be responsible for the expenses incurred by the customs or other authorities for the open box inspection and the resulting damage and shortage of goods; if the container goods are not enough, or the lining is not good, the stowage is improper, or the goods unsuitable for container transportation are loaded, the shipper shall be responsible for the resulting damage and shortage of goods; If the non airworthy container owned by the consignor is used, the consignor shall be responsible for the damage of the cargo; if the damage to the property or life of a third party is caused by the use of the carrier's container and equipment, the consignor shall be responsible for the compensation. There are many different ways of leasing containers in the world, including journey leasing, time leasing, current leasing and blocking leasing in the shipping area. 7、 Container terminal is the specific department responsible for the handling and storage of containers or goods in container transportation. Entrusted by the carrier or its agent, it carries out the following businesses: exchange and custody of full container freight; handle the handover of LCL cargo if there is a container terminal; arrange the berthing, loading and unloading of container ships 14、 Limits of liability the maximum amount of compensation that the carrier should bear in case of damage or discrepancy in container transportation. The liability limit of LCL is the same as that of traditional transportation. The compensation for FCL is based on some international precedents: if the number of pieces of the goods in the case is not listed in the bill of lading, each case shall be taken as a unit of claim calculation; if the number of pieces of the goods in the case is listed in the bill of lading, it shall still be calculated according to the number of pieces; if the damage and loss of the goods are not caused by sea, but occurred in inland transportation, it shall be handled according to the maximum amount of compensation for land transportation; for example, if the damage and loss of the goods are not caused by sea transportation, it shall be handled according to the maximum amount of compensation for When the packing is owned or provided by the shipper, in case of loss or damage, the carrier should bear the responsibility, and it should also be regarded as a unit of claim calculation.
    2015-07-24 Read 439
  • meeting of KEYUN Logistics Group in the first half of 2015
    in midsummer, KEYUN Logistics Group gathered in beautiful Pangu, and the highlights of wonderful reports came out frequently. In the semiannual summary meeting of 2015, which started on June 28th, the broad consensus of "reshaping culture and firm transformation" was reached and successfully ended on June 30. For the first time, the conference was held in the form of discussion by professional groups. The general managers, financial managers and core business backbones from all parts of the group held special discussions on corporate culture system construction, core business transformation, financial regulation and control, overseas and mainland network construction, etc, In the efficient communication for the second half of the group and next year's work pointed out the direction, drum up the momentum  
    2015-07-24 Read 185